A new study shows how the rise of hookups is having an impact on birth rates. The National Bureau of Economic Research released a paper in December that examined the effect of hookup culture on the American population. The study found that “the increase in nonmarital sex has been associated with a decline in fertility and births.” The authors write, “The evidence suggests that women are engaging less frequently in sexual activity than they did before the 1990s and have not embraced a sexually liberated lifestyle as some had predicted.”
That isn’t exactly news to anyone who’s lived in college towns or cities like San Francisco where casual sex is the norm (and sometimes even encouraged). But it’s newsworthy because of how much Americans’ attitudes toward sex have shifted over time. A growing body of research points to how our modern hookup culture may be influencing America’s declining birth rate. With many free adult dating sites such as FDating, as outlined here, people are looking for no-strings attached casual sex, and not long term relationships. People are less often looking to build families and have children.
As this new report illustrates, we still don’t know for sure whether hooking up is harming people’s ability to procreate or if there’s something else at play here. It could just be that young adults are delaying parenthood, choosing to focus on their careers instead. But whatever the case, it seems clear that in today’s society, relationships are more casual and often lack commitment than ever before—and that shift has caused a ripple effect throughout many other facets of life.
To better understand how America’s hookup culture is impacting other areas of modern life, I reached out to three experts in the field: psychologist Dr. Jennifer Baucom, sex researcher Dr. Jessica O’Reilly, and sociologist Dr. David Ley. Together, they’ve written about the effects of hookups on women, men, and society. Here, they break down some of the biggest impacts of hookup culture, from declining birth rates to relationship dissolution.
Birth Rates Are Plummeting
In recent years, the United States has seen its overall fertility rate drop for the first time since the 1970s. In 2015, the country saw a dip of 1.3 percent, compared to 2014, according to data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meanwhile, the number of babies born per thousand women between the ages of 15–44 declined by 4.4 percent in 2015, versus 2014.
These statistics show that Americans aren’t having enough kids. In fact, the only major developed country where birth rates have dropped further is Japan, whose population is actually decreasing at an alarming rate. This is bad news for the future of the U.S., but what’s behind the drop? According to Dr. Baucom, the answer is clear: our nation’s hookup culture.
“Hookup culture makes it easier for people to get laid without committing to anything,” she said. “While we do see a drop in birthrates when people date and marry, it’s usually a slow process. With hookups, you can go out, get drunk, and wind up sleeping with someone. You don’t have to worry about the fallout of being in a relationship or not getting married right away. For people who want lots of sex, it’s a great way to meet that need.”
The Rise of Internet Porn Is Making Relationships Less Satisfying
Like hookups, pornography is another product of our hookup-centric culture. As a result, the ways we’re viewing porn are changing—and it’s having an effect on our sex lives.
Dr. O’Reilly explained, “Pornography has become so accessible and normalized that people are no longer seeing it as taboo or unusual anymore. And it doesn’t take long for that to affect your real life experiences of intimacy. Instead of feeling turned on by a partner and experiencing arousal, it feels like, ‘I’m supposed to have arousal over this person.’ That’s why it’s harder to feel aroused in relationships now.”
This has implications for both genders: men may be less likely to experience desire for their partners, while women might lose interest in the idea of sex altogether. “When women view porn, they learn that their own bodies aren’t sexy. They think, ‘Oh, I look fat,’ or, ‘My breasts are too small,'” said Dr. O’Reilly. “For men, seeing more women in porn is one thing, but if they’re also experiencing reduced desire for women themselves, that’s not good.”
One solution would be to screen porn for sexism, but Dr. O’Reilly says that’s unlikely to happen anytime soon. “It’s easy to say, ‘Don’t watch porn if you don’t like it,’ but that’s not realistic,” she continued. “People can’t always control what turns them on. We need to focus on how people can use porn responsibly.”
Clearly, our societal attitude toward sex—both casual and committed—is having an impact on our lives. Whether it’s the decline in birth rates or the way we’re viewing pornography, our attitudes toward sex are changing, and those changes are affecting many aspects of daily life.
What’s most important is that we recognize these trends and take steps to reverse them. If we continue to embrace hookup culture, we’ll keep seeing negative consequences. At the same time, if we start taking steps to encourage meaningful relationships, we can begin to improve the way we live and love.
When do you think of social media giants, who are the companies which come to mind?
No doubt Facebook is top of the list. They are a global behemoth whose success is unlikely to be matched by any other social media company in the next twenty years. Snapchat is also somewhere on your list – with it being the second most popular app (having recently surpassed Twitter by around 15 million users).
However, there are some obvious differences between the two platforms. Facebook is a much more all-encompassing social media page, with its viral videos, mass sharing of news articles, memes, links, secret groups, and sharing of personal updates. It’s very much the central hub of connectivity anywhere on the internet. While it may seem that Facebook is more a place to get your news from these days, the algorithms which dictate the order of your news feed ensure that you see your friends’ updates first.
By contrast, Snapchat is a tool that encourages creativity. Immediately opening the app, the user is greeted with their camera in selfie mode. This isn’t an accident. This is Snapchat’s way of saying: share a moment of creativity with your friends, strangers, and anyone else on your contacts list. It’s telling you to make something new – whether it’s a selfie with an overly-ridiculous filter or a picture of something quirky, it’s encouraging you to make something.
However, this is where Snapchat’s limitations come into play. While “visual” social media is currently the hottest thing out there, a lot of people don’t want to have this kind of pushy creativity forced on them. Instead, they simply want to consume. They want to see what their friends have been up to or enjoy a few snaps of their friends’ lives. The purpose of social media is to connect, however, Snapchat doesn’t really “connect” its users in the way Facebook offers.
It may be surprising to learn that the daily active user base of Facebook and Snapchat only overlaps by around 65%. This means that there are around 35% of Snapchat users can’t be reached via Facebook.
For a while, it seemed that Snapchat was on a trajectory to becoming just as popular as Facebook. However, in 2016, Facebook more or less stole Snapchat’s gimmick and used it in one of its new features. They introduced the option of sending short videos to your friends which are then deleted after 24 hours. They incorporated Snapchat’s fundamental idea, while at the same time maintaining their brand of connecting with friends.
It’s also important to address the varied demographics to which Facebook caters. For example, if people in their fifties or sixties are looking to connect with an old friend of theirs, the first social media hub they’ll be drawn to is Facebook. People who use Facebook to genuinely connect with friends, family, or long-lost relatives have no desire to send heavily filtered photographs to their followers; they’re simply looking for genuine connectivity.
This, however, is an aspect of social media which Snapchat is yet to capitalize on. Therefore, it will struggle to reach the earth-shattering success of Facebook, at least until its platform evolves. The last frontier that Snapchat can really beat Facebook is that pornstars have taken over Snapchat, which is clear from the rise of popular pornstar Snapchat site truesnaps.com
1) Minimum In Fresh Water
According to researchers at UN-Water, 75% of the planet is filled with water. 97.5% of that percentage is water from the ocean and 2.5% of it is fresh water. 70% of said freshwater is broken up into ice caps and glaciers and the last 30% is all land surface water, like rivers, lakes, ponds, and groundwater.
A lot of the sources of freshwater can either not be reached or are way too polluted, resulting in less than 1% of the world’s freshwater, or around 0.003% of all water on the planet, readily available for all humans use. Based on research done by the scientists at Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025, it is guessed that by the year 2025, more than 50% of the planet’s population will be up against water-based drought and the general human need for water will be true for 70% of any remaining freshwater.
2) Species Extinct
The human species is as of right now the reason behind the biggest mass extinction of species since the demise of the dinosaurs almost 65 million years ago. This extinction is occurring at 1000 to 10,000 times faster than usual.
The update made in 2012 of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species reveals that of the 63,837 species that are studied all over the world, 19,817 are in danger of extinction, which is almost a third of the total.
If current events continue, scientists suggest that within the next few decades, almost half of all animal and plant species on this planet will be obsolete, due to the effects of climate change, habitat loss, pollution, acidifying oceans, invasive species, over-exploitation of natural resources, overfishing, poaching and finally, human overpopulation.
3) Reduction of Natural Resources
As the human population grows more and more, limited natural resources, for example, freshwater, fossil fuels, coral reefs, farmland, and frontier forests, keep on dropping, which is putting competitive stress on the basic life assisting resources and chaperoning to a disgusting quality of life. A recent report by the UNEP Global Environment Outlook, which includes 1,400 scientists and five whole years-worth of work to be completed, discovered that human consumption had far outstripped available resources.
4) New Epidemics and Pandemics
A recent study reveals that environmental depravity, mixed with the ever-growing population on Earth, happens to be a huge reason for the rise of human diseases, which also plays a part in the malnutrition of 3.7 billion people all over the world, causing them to be more vulnerable to disease. According to the World Health Organization, Every three seconds a young child dies – in most cases from an infectious disease.
As population masses go up, rules and regulations, which are viewed as a main social advocate of affiliations between people, will more often mediate communication between humans and invent a requirement for more regulations and restrictions in order to mediate this intercommunication.
In 1958, Aldous Huxley guessed that democracy is in trouble because of overpopulation and could potentially become an environment run by totalitarian-style governments, and it just so turns out that he was correct. Rules and regulations can be great concepts, but for the sole reason that they are essential in order to make room for the growing populations that are reassuring such policies.
Each of our team for the totality of our lifespans has heard the dominating orthodontic knowledge of those around our team. They can help us get that task at the next interview, or could gain our team in social circumstances where having an implying artistic appeal can easily provide our company conveniences. For all of the crucial aspects of having good oral care, numerous of us experience anxiousness when that comes also visiting a dental practitioner.
The methods a dental practitioner creates you think when you remain in his/her office might be of fantastic relevance. The stress that many of our companies endure when seeing a dental expert, be that from a worry of needles or drills, or even different sources of fear, could be managed.
Many of our company see a dental professional twice a year of age for a normal checkup, however a few of our team experience such worry that our team avoids visiting a qualified for a long times on end. Find an orthodontist that you really feel comfy speaking to.
A lot of dental professionals make certain to supply extensive assessment support services where you may refer to the therapies as well as procedures you are interested in. After speaking with your dental expert you can easily open a dialogue as well as discuss a few of your continuous concerns concerning the procedures and also your orthodontic cleanliness. Finding a physician that ensures you experience at ease and also risk-free in their care can be a great perk.
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Make certain you learn exactly what sort of services you are actually seeking when you choose a dental practitioner. Be sure that the dental expert you tap the services of possesses extensive knowledge. You can talk to different clients and reps of the workplace also determine exactly what sorts of accreditations this professional has and also simply how long he or she has been providing people.
By obtaining a tip of the overall experience of the specialist you choose, you can make certain you opt for the ideal dental professional for your requirements.
When you are picking a dental practitioner, be actually very knowledgeable of your individual demands. As stated before, a few of our companies go to orthodontists holding various needs and in search of various types of methods. Some of our companies are actually seeking lasting care that features routine check-ups as well as cleansings. A number of our team recognize this type of service.
We visit the dental expert a handful of times a year for a cleaning as well as other operations. Thus, the dental professional can easily aid our company to maintain our teeth in good condition as well as perhaps enable our team to learn of any kind of possible issues. They could encourage our team on points our team may do also keep our dental care level and also may also quit prospective concerns from occurring. No people would love to wind up in such an uncomfortable placement as possessing a toothache. Partnering with a specialist can easily assist you to prevent this unlucky condition.
Be certain that you are actually assured of the top quality of the solutions supplied both around the orthodontist as well as those in his workplace. Produce sure to likewise ask staff members concerning the availability of the dental practitioner and services. Be actually certain your orthodontist is actually easily accessible as well as can easily deliver budget-friendly unexpected emergency solutions if required.
Each of our team for the entirety of our lives has actually listened to the dominating oral knowledge of those around our team. They can easily aid our team to acquire that work at the upcoming interview, or even can benefit our team in social situations where possessing an implying artistic look may give us an advantage.
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The human population of Earth reached 1 billion in 1804, 2 billion in 1927, 3 billion in 1959, 4 billion in 1974, and 5 billion in late 1986. Last year on October 12th, 1999, the human population of Earth reached 6 billion. In my lifetime the population has doubled from 3 billion in 1959 to 6,034,213,000 today. This doubling of the population which occurred over the last 40 years will never come close to happening again.
The exponential growth of the human population peaked in 1987. That year 87.01 million more people were added to the Earth. Since 1987, the population has declined on average by 2.1 million fewer people added per year. In the year of 2000, the population will increase by 60.1 million people. If we maintain this 13 year average of 2.1 million fewer people added per year, we will peak in population reaching zero population growth in 2029 with 6.90 billion people.
The decline of the human population has been even more dramatic over the last 6 years. In 1994 we added 78.5 million more people, this year we will add 60.1 million. This is a decline of 3 million fewer people added per year. If we maintain this 6 year average of 3 million fewer people added per year, we will peak in population reaching zero population growth in 2020 with 6.64 billion people.
When demographers from the United Nations did their biennial update of world population numbers in October of 1998 they reduced their projected average population for 2050 from 9.4 billion to 8.9 billion. They also reduced their low number, saying we will reach zero population growth in 2038 @ 7.47 billion.
People that are somewhat aware of human population numbers are talking about the 8.9 billion in 2050. Some people are saying it will go higher and a few fool hearty cornucopians are still saying that our population is nearly limitless. All the while no one seems to be looking at nor talking about their low number which has constantly been reduced for the last 13 years. When the United Nations meets again this fall, the projected high, average, and low numbers will be reduced once again.
If you take a look at the 2 charts we have produced from the United Nations year by year population figures you can see the declines for yourself. Our population has been going down faster for the last 6 years than even their low numbers for reaching zero population growth in 2038 @ 7.47 billion.
This is shown by their low number for January 1, 2000, which is 6,027,534,000, yet on October 12, 1999, they said we reached 6,000,000,000. We could not have added 27,534,000 people in 80 days. We actually added 13,880,000 to make it 6,013,880,000 in the last 80 days of 1999. What this all means is we will reach zero population growth somewhere between 2020 @ 6.64 billion and 2029 @ 6.90 billion.
Perhaps the powers that be have an interest in keeping you thinking we can expand forever, implying that the Earth’s resources are limitless. Perhaps the capitalistic economic system that rules Earth does not want to let you know the truth about our crashing population and that we will reach zero population growth very shortly.
The true reason why our population is crashing is we have passed our sustainable limits for both of our major food energy sources, grains and fish, as well as very quickly reaching our freshwater limits. This awareness is not what the capitalistic economic system powers that be want you to know. It would be bad for their business.
Our crashing population is both good and bad. It is good because these numbers show the indisputable evidence of the collapse that has been underway now for the past 13 years. This is the ultimate wake-up call for Homo Sapiens. If there were ever a sign to take a long hard look at what we as a species are doing to all of the life-sustaining ecosystems on Earth, this is it.
On the other hand, this is bad because we have yet to recognize the alarming facts that for the last 16 years we have passed the sustainable food limits that Earth can produce relative to population. This plus our population is going down faster and faster each year for 13 straight years.
Meanwhile, 3.6 billion people are barely getting enough to eat with more than 1 billion of them in total abject poverty. And let us not forget that somewhere between 10 and 30 million children die every year of the worst possible death, starvation, and starvation-related diseases.
Why did the exponential growth of the human population peak in 1987? Why has our population been going down every year since? Why is our population declining more each year than the preceding one? Why is this crashing slowdown in our population happening? And why will our population reach zero population growth somewhere between the years 2020 and 2029?
In the following areas, you will find the major factors that have caused our population to peak in 1987 with 87 million more people added and decline on average by 2.1 million fewer people per year over the last 13 years.
Sustainability Of Soil Energy:
The rise in Grain Yield per hectare is slowing in all major grain-producing regions. Since 1984, grain output per person has fallen on average by .6 percent per year. In 1998, the per capita grain output further declined to 695 pounds, this is an 8 percent decline from the peak in 1984 when the per capita grain output was 755 pounds.
The slower growth in world grain harvest is due to the lack of new land and slower growth in irrigation and fertilizer use. Irrigated area per person, after expanding by 30 percent from 1950 until 1978, has declined by 4 percent. Since then the growth in the irrigated area has fallen behind that of the population. With biotechnology neither providing nor promising any dramatic breakthrough in raising yields, there is little hope for restoring growth in food output.
Sustainability Of Fisheries Energy:
The worldwide Fish Catch peaked in 1989 at 100 million metric tons. Since 1989, the seafood catch per person has fallen by 2 percent per year. Marine biologists at the Food and Agriculture Organization report that all 17 of the major oceanic fisheries are being fished at or beyond capacity. Nine are in a state of collapse.
Fresh Water Limits:
Since the amount of freshwater available for human consumption is constant, as the population grows, the supply of fresh water per person declines. As a result, the amount of water available per person is expected to decline by 74 percent between 1950 and 2050. Nearly half a billion people around the world face water shortages today. By 2025, the number is expected to grow to 2.8 billion people.
Of these, at least 1 billion people will be living in countries facing absolute water scarcity. Most overpopulated, fast-urbanizing countries of Asia, Latin America, and Africa have to survive on largely polluted rivers and wells. Water is a major carrier of disease-bearing germs. As many as 2.3 billion people in the world today suffer from diseases linked to water, such as dysentery, cholera, and typhoid. Less than 1 percent of the Earth’s water is fit and available for human consumption.
Family Planning For Women / Literacy Rates:
Successful family planning programs have led to many positive developments. Women’s literacy rates have gone up and they are now given a much greater role in the society of many countries. This has increased their knowledge of their reproduction cycles and bodies. As a result, as many as 75 countries from all regions of the world now have achieved replacement level fertility rates of 2.1 children per woman or less.
Infant And Child Mortality / Starvation And Its Related Diseases:
10 million children died before reaching their fifth birthday in 1998 and nearly 8 million of them did not reach their first birthday. About 98 percent of child deaths occurred in developing countries, with the least developed countries accounting for a third of all deaths under age five.
In the developed world, only eight out of every 1,000 newborn children died before they reached their first birthday in 1998; in the developing world, the number of deaths was 64 per 1,000 newborns. Infants in the least developed countries fared even worse, with 109 of every 1,000 newborn children dying before age one. Similarly, mortality under age five was seven times higher in developing countries and 12 times higher in the least developed countries than in developed countries.
HIV Infection Rates:
All industrial countries have held HIV infection rates of their adult populations under 1 percent but in some countries of sub-Saharan Africa, they have climbed above 20 percent. In Botswana, the adult infection level is 26 percent. In Zimbabwe, 25 percent, and in South Africa, 22 percent.
Countries with infection rates of 18 to 20 percent include Namibia, Swaziland, and Zambia. Aside from raising mortality, the virus also reduces fertility. With new infections at the highest level in the 15- to 24-year age group in sub-Saharan Africa, many young women will die before they complete their childbearing years. In addition, as the infection progresses toward full-blown AIDS, ovulation often ceases, reducing fertility further. In 1981, there were 200,000 new infections; in 1998, there were 5.8 million new infections. Preliminary data indicate a far bigger jump in 1999.